Hardees

Hardees Manual of Arms

 

1. ATTENTION – COMPANY

The body is in the position of attention. The right arm is at the side, the right hand gripping the musket, fingers forward. The musket butt is beside the right foot, barrel vertical and along the hollow of the right shoulder.

   

2. POSITION OF SHOULDER – ARMS

The musket is held in the palm of the left hand, the left elbow slightly bent, the heel of the butt between the forefinger and middle finger, the thumb on the front screw of the butt-plate. The butt is held back so that the barrel is almost vertical. The barrel is to the front with the stock against the hollow of the left shoulder.


3. SUPPORT – ARMS

With the right hand seize the small of the stock and slightly raise the musket. Place the left palm on the chest. Support of the musket by resting the hammer on the crook of the arm and pressing the musket to the shoulder. Drop the right hand to the side.

CARRY – ARMS

Grasp the musket with the right hand at the small of the stock. Place the left hand under the butt as before. Lower the musket slightly and drop the right hand to the side.

The command CARRY – ARMS is always given to return from SUPPORT – ARMS to SHOULDER – ARMS. In all other instances the command is SHOULDER – ARMS. However, in re-enactments, the command SHOULDER – ARMS is often used.

4. PRESENT – ARMS

With the left hand turn the musket to the right so that the lock plate is facing to the front. With the right hand grasp the small of the stock. Bring the piece, vertically, in front of the body, turning the barrel towards the body. With the left hand grasp the musket, thumb is just above the lock plate, keeping the elbow close to the side and forearm horizontal with the ground.

SHOULDER – ARMS

With the right hand turn the musket so that the barrel is now facing out. Raise the musket and place against the left shoulder. Grasp the butt with the left hand and drop the right hand to the side. When done correctly, there should not be any raising or lowering of the musket with the left hand.


5. ORDER – ARMS

Lower the left arm and with the right hand grasp the musket just above the lower band. Bring the musket to the right side, vertically with the rammer to the front, the butt three inches from the ground. Let the musket gently slip to the ground, then grasp the barrel with the thumb and forefinger, arm extended, and the muzzle about two inches from the shoulder.

This is the same position as for ATTENTION – COMPANY.

REST

At this command the soldiers are not required to remain silent or steady. However, they shall not quit their rank without special permission.

ATTENTION – COMPANY

This command is issued to pass from the position of REST, to one of silence and steadiness. On COMPANY, the men will return to the position of Order-Arms and remain firm and silent.

SHOULDER – ARMS

With the right hand raise the musket vertically, turning the barrel to the front and place it against the left shoulder. Grasp the butt with the left palm and slide the right hand down to the lock. Then drop the right hand to the size

   
6. FIX – BAYONET

Straighten the left arm and with the right hand grasp the musket just above the lower band. Lower the musket with the right hand along the left thigh and with the left hand grasp the musket just above the right hand. Lower the musket gently to the ground with the left hand with the butt just to the left of the left foot and the muzzle in front of the chest. With the right hand grasp the bayonet by the socket and shank. Make sure about one inch of the socket is above the heel of the hand. Draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix bayonets, turning the clasp with the right thumb. Then extend the left arm along the barrel without dropping the left shoulder.

SHOULDER – ARMS

With the left hand grasp the musket and raise it until the band is up to the level of the chin. The forearm is touching the musket and the barrel is to the front. The right hand is still supporting the musket. Lower the right hand and grasp the musket just above the small of the stock next to the hammer. Raise the musket with the right hand and grasp the butt with the left palm. Press the musket to the left shoulder with the right hand. Move the right foot back on line with the left foot. Drop the right hand to the side.


7. CHARGE – BAYONET

Face oblique to the right and take the first position in About-Face. Turn the musket lock plate to the front and grasp the small of the stock with the right hand making sure the musket is kept vertical and slightly away from the body. Let go of the musket with the left hand and lower the musket with the right hand. Grasp the musket with the left hand at the lower band. The left elbow is against the body, and the right hand against the hip. The barrel is up and the point of the bayonet is at eye level.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Face to the front and bring the right foot alongside the left hand and grasp the butt with the left palm. Drop the right hand to the side.

 

8. GUARD AGAINST INFANTRY – GUARD

Turn half right on both heels, raise the musket slightly with the right hand at the small of the stock. Grasp it with the left hand above and near the lower band.

Move the right foot 20 inches to the rear, the right heel behind the left, knees slightly bent. Lower the musket with both hands, the left elbow against the body, until the point of the bayonet is slightly elevated.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Throw up the musket to the left shoulder, at the same time bring the right heel by the side of the left and face to the front.


9. GUARD AGAINST CAVALRY – GUARD

Same as for Guard Against Infantry, except that the right hand will be supported against the hip, and the bayonet held at the height of the eye, as in Charge-Bayonet.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Similar to Guard Against Infantry.

 

10. UNFIX – BAYONET

Lower the musket to the ground as in FIX – BAYONET. With the right hand unfix the bayonet and return it to the scabbard. Hold the musket upright by placing the right little finger on the butt of the ramrod and lower the left hand along the barrel.

SHOULDER – ARMS

The same as from FIX – BAYONETS


11. SECURE – ARMS

Grasp the musket with the right hand at the lock plate, the forefinger on the hammer and the thumb on the counter-plate. Move the musket slightly from the shoulder, barrel to the front. Grasp the lower band with the left hand and extend the thumb along the ramrod. The musket is vertical with the left elbow on the musket. Lower the muzzle to about one-foot from the ground and the butt behind the left shoulder. The left thumb rests on the ramrod. Drop the right hand to the side.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Raise the muzzle with the left hand until the stock rests on the left shoulder. With the right hand grasp the small of the stock, then drop the left hand and grasp the butt with the palm. Drop the right hand to the side.

 
12. TRAIL – ARMS

Just as in Order – Arms, bring the musket to the right side until the butt is three inches from the ground. Tilt the muzzle forward slightly, making sure not to touch the soldier in front with the bayonet. The butt should be kept about three inches off the ground and the right hand held at the hip.

SHOULDER – ARMS

On SHOULDER, raise the muzzle until the musket is vertical. Then raise to Shoulder – Arms as if returning from Order – Arms.


13. RIGHT SHOULDER SHIFT – ARMS

With the left hand turn the musket lock to the front. Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand and place the musket on the right shoulder. Grasp the flat of the stock with the right hand across the top, then drop the left hand.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Lower the right hand and grasp the musket just above the lock with the left hand. Move the right hand up to the small of the stock and bring the musket to the left shoulder. Grasp the butt with the left palm and drop the right hand to the side.

   

14. ARMS – AT WILL

The musket may be carried on either shoulder, holding it with one or both hands, the muzzle always up.


15. GROUND – ARMS

From the Order-Arms position, on the Arms command, turn the musket with the right hand so that the barrel is to the left. At the same time reach behind the back with the left hand and grasp the cartridge box. Step forward with the left foot and lay the musket on the ground, with the lock plate up and the butt next to the right toe. Rise up, letting go of the cartridge box, and assume the position of attention.

16. INSPECTION OF ARMS

The Inspection-Arms command is issued with the men at Open-Order and in the Order-Arms position with the bayonet in the scabbard.

INSPECTION – ARMS

Face half right on the left heel and move the right foot six inches to the rear of the left foot and at right angles to it. With the left hand, grasp the musket just above the middle band and lean the muzzle to the rear keeping the butt in place.

Draw the bayonet from the scabbard, carry and fix it on the muzzle. Grasp the rammer, draw it as in Draw-Rammer when loading, and let it glide to the bottom of the bore.

Face to the front. Grasp the musket with the right hand and retake the position of Order-Arms.

When the inspector is in front of each soldier, the latter raises the musket with the right hand, and then grasps it with his left hand, between the lower band and the sight, then raises his left hand to chin level, lock to the front. The barrel is in front of the left eye. The right hand is dropped to the side.

The inspector may take the rifle with his right hand. When the inspector does take it, the soldier drops his arms to his side. When the inspector is finished, the soldier takes it back with his right hand, and returns to Order-Arms.

When the inspector has passed each soldier, the latter will retake the position prescribed at the command Inspection-Arms, and return the rammer; after which he will take the position of Order-Arms.

SPRING – RAMMERS

During the Civil War, the rammer was placed in the barrel and sprung (bounced) in the barrel. If the barrel rang, then the musket was unloaded, if a clank was heard the musket was still loaded. The men are in the Order-Arms position.

On RAMMER, bring the musket to the LOAD position and place the rammer in the barrel. Resume the position of Order-Arms. The inspector can take the rammer by the small end, and spring it in the barrel, or cause each man to make the rammer ring in the barrel. Each man, after the inspector passes him, will return rammer, and face to the front.

ARMS – PORT

Throw the musket diagonally across the body, the lock to the front, grasp it at the same instant with both hands, the right at the small of the stock, the left at the lower band, the two thumbs pointing towards the muzzle, the barrel sloping upwards and crossing opposite.

SHOULDER – ARMS

Bring the musket to the left shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt. Drop the right hand by the side.

   
17. STACK – ARMS

This command is executed from the Order-Arms position with the men having numbered off into fours.

With Bayonets

At this command, the front rank man of every even numbered file will pass his musket before him, seizing it with the left hand above the middle band, and place the butt behind and near the right foot of the man next on the left, the barrel turned to the front.

At the same time the front rank man of every odd numbered file will pass his musket before him, seizing it with the left hand below the middle band, and hand it to the man next on the left. The latter will receive it with the right hand two inches above the middle band, throw the butt about thirty-two inches to the front, opposite to his right shoulder, incline the muzzle towards him, and lock the shanks of the two bayonets. The lock of this second musket is towards the right, and its shank above that of the first musket.

The rear rank man of every even file will project his bayonet forward, and introduce it (using both hands) between and under the shanks of the two other bayonets. He will then abandon the musket to his file leader, who will receive it with the right hand under the middle band, bring the butt to the front, holding up his own musket and the stack with the left hand, and place the butt of this third musket between the feet of the man next on the right, the S plate to the rear.

The stack thus formed, the rear rank man of every odd file will pass his musket into his left hand, the barrel turned to the front and, sloping the bayonet forward, rest it on the stack.

Without Bayonets

If the company be armed with muskets without the bayonet, arms will be stacked by the same commands, and in the following manner.

At the command STACK – ARMS, the Front Rank Number Two passes his musket before him, grasping it with the left hand near the upper band. He places the butt a little in advance of his left toe, the barrel turned towards the body, and draws the rammer slightly from its place.

The Front Rank Number One also draws the rammer slightly, and passes his musket to the man next on his left, who will grasp it with the right hand near the upper band, and place the butt a little in advance of the right toe of the man next on his right, the barrel turned to the front. He then crosses the rammers of the two muskets, the rammer of Number One’s musket being inside.

The Rear Rank Number Two also draws his rammer, leans his musket forward, the lock-plate downwards, advances his right foot about six inches, and inserts the rammer between the rammer and barrel of the musket of his front rank man. With his left hand he places the butt of his musket on the ground, thirty-two inches in rear of, and perpendicular to, the front rank, bringing back his right foot by the side of the left.

The Front Rank Number Two will at the same time lean the stack to the rear, quit it with his right hand, and force all the rammers down.

The stack being thus formed, the Rear Rank Number One passes his musket into his left hand, the barrel to the front, and inclining it forward, rests it on the stack.

File closers pass their muskets up to be stacked on the nearest stack. Everyone comes to attention.


18. BREAK RANKS – MARCH

Break ranks is the civil war equivalent to the modern Dismissed. The men are free to leave the immediate area and go about their other duties, or are considered off duty. Break-Ranks is always given with the company at attention.

On March, the men step out of ranks.


19. TAKE – ARMS

The company has resumed its position in line, behind the stacked muskets.

At this command, after the File Closers have received their muskets, the Rear Rank Number One withdraws his musket from the stack. The Front Rank Number Two grasps his own musket with the left hand, and that of the man on his right with his right hand, both above the lower band.

The Rear Rank Number Two grasps his musket with his right hand below the lower band. The Number Twos both raise up the stock to loosen the rammers or bayonets.

The Front Rank Number One draws the rammers out slightly with the left hand. The rear rank Number Two takes his musket. The Front Rank Number Two then disengages the muskets, handing the Front Rank Number One a musket with the right hand.

The four men will retake the position of the soldier at order arms.

20. COMMANDS TO LOAD

Commands to Load in ten times

  • 1. LOAD IN TEN TIMES – LOAD
    Extend the left arm and with the right hand grasp the musket just above the lower band. Then move the right foot forward and place the right heel against the instep of the left foot. With the right hand gently lower the butt along the left thigh. At the same time grasp the musket with the left hand just above the right hand and continue lowering the butt to the ground just to the left of the left foot. The muzzle should be in front of the chest. Then place right hand on cartridge box.
  • 2. HANDLE – CARTRIDGE
    Reach into cartridge box, grasp a cartridge, and place cartridge between teeth.
  • 3. TEAR – CARTRIDGE
    Tear cartridge with teeth, and place torn cartridge upright in front of and level with muzzle. Hold the cartridge with the thumb and first two fingers, back of the hand to the front.
  • 4. CHARGE – CARTRIDGE
    Turn the back of the right hand toward the body and pour the powder into barrel. Leave the hand at the muzzle. (Re-enactors keep paper in hand ready to place in pocket or bread-bag.)
  • 5. DRAW – RAMMER
    With the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, draw rammer halfway out and then grasp the rammer at the muzzle with the left thumb and forefinger, thumb down and palm to the front. Invert the rammer and place large end of rammer (butt) inside the muzzle, then place the rammer half way down to the right hand.
  • 6. RAM – CARTRIDGE
    Grasp the rammer between the right thumb extended and the fore-finger bent, the other fingers closed. With force ram home twice and grasp the rammer at the small end between the thumb and forefinger, the right elbow touching the body.
  • 7. RETURN – RAMMER
    Raise the rammer from the barrel as in Draw-Rammer. Invert the rammer and place the small end near the upper band. Insert the rammer and force it down to the middle band with the thumb. Then raise the hand and force the rammer the rest of the way with the little finger. At the same time lower the left arm without dropping the elbow.
  • 8. CAST – ABOUT
    Raise the musket vertically to the left shoulder with the left hand. Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand and slide the left hand down level with the chin. Face half right and place the instep of the right foot against the left heel. Bring the musket opposite to the right shoulder. Lower the musket with the right hand. With the left hand grasp the musket at the lower band, the thumb extended along the stock. Raise the butt under the right forearm, the small of the stock against the body, the right hand grasping the small of the stock and the muzzle at eye level.
   
  • 9. PRIME
    With the right hand, cock the hammer to safety lock. Reach into cap box and place cap on nipple, removing any old cap first. Grasp small of stock with right hand.
  • 10. SHOULDER – ARMS
    Face to the front by turning on the left heel; at the same time with the right hand bring the musket to the left shoulder, and place the left hand under the butt. Let the left hand slide into its position at Shoulder-Arms.

Commands to Load in four times

  • LOAD IN FOUR TIMES – LOAD
    Perform Load, Handle-Cartridge, Tear-Cartridge and Charge-Cartridge
  • TWO
    Perform Draw-Rammer and Ram-Cartridge
  • THREE
    Perform Return-Rammer, Cast-About and Prime
  • FOUR
    Perform Shoulder-Arms

·         21. COMMANDS TO FIRE

·         READY (from the position of Prime)

·         Place the thumb of the right hand on the hammer (the fingers remaining under and against the guard), cock the musket, and grasp the small of the stock.

·         READY (from the position of Shoulder-Arms)

·         With the left hand turn the musket. Lock-plate forward and with the right hand grasp the small of the stock. At the same time face half right on the left heel. Turn the left foot forward and place the instep of the right foot against the left heel. Bring the musket vertically to the centre of the body with the right hand. Place the left hand just above the lock, thumb extended, and at chin level. The rammer is facing half left. Place the right thumb on the hammer and the right forefinger under the trigger guard, the right elbow at the same level as the right hand. Lock the hammer and then move the right hand to the small of the stock. Keeping the left hand at shoulder level, lower the musket with the right hand until the lower band is at the left hand.

 

·         AIM

·         The front rank raises muskets to shoulder and leaning forward, aims at target. The rear rank raises musket and leaning forward carries the right foot eight inches towards the left heel of the man next on his right, aims over right shoulder of the man directly in front, with the front man’s head between the middle and lower band.

 

·         FIRE

·         Apply the fore-finger to the trigger without hesitation, and remain in that position.

·         After firing, hold the AIM position until given another command, such as LOAD, SHOULDER – ARMS, FIRE-AT-WILL, or CEASE – FIRING.

·         LOAD (after Firing)

·         Bring the musket to the vertical position by lowering the butt with the right arm. Then bring the musket opposite to the left shoulder, barrel to the front. Keep the left hand as high as the chin and the left forearm touching the stock. At the same time face to the front and place the heel of the right foot against the instep of the left foot. Drop the right hand to the side and let the musket slide through the left hand gently to the ground. Lower the left hand a little, assuming the position of Load.

·         SHOULDER – ARMS (after Firing)

·         Bring the musket to the vertical position as above and face to the front. Bring the musket to the left shoulder and place the left palm under the butt. Drop the right hand to the side

·         RECOVER – ARMS (from the position of Aim)

·         On ARMS, withdraw the finger from the trigger, throw up the muzzle smartly, and retake the position of Ready.
This command is issued from the position of Aim, when the command to Fire has not been given.

·         SHOULDER – ARMS

·         On SHOULDER, face to the front and bring the musket to the vertical position in front of the body. The left thumb is at chin level. Half cock and then grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

·         On ARMS, bring the musket to the right shoulder in the position of Shoulder-Arms

 

ORGANISATION OF A COMPANY

COMPANY IN LINE OF BATTLE
2nd Platoon 1st Platoon  
     
C4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 C3 C2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 C1 Cap
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 S1
         
  S2 L1   L3   S3     S4   L2   S5  
       
4th Section 3rd Section 2nd Section 1st Section

 

Key to Company Formation Diagrams
Cap Captain
L1 1st Lieutenant
L2 2nd Lieutenant
L3 3rd Lieutenant
S1 1st Sergeant
S2 2nd Sergeant
S3 3rd Sergeant
S4 4th Sergeant
S5 5th Sergeant
C1 1st Corporal
C2 2nd Corporal
C3 3rd Corporal
C4 4th Corporal
1 Number One Privates
2 Number Two Privates

A Company varies in number from 50 to 100 rank and file. A Captain, two or more Lieutenants, from four to six Sergeants, and as many Corporals, are attached to every company. The captain and lieutenants are the Officers, and the sergeants and corporals the Non-Commissioned Officers of the company.

The captain is responsible for the instruction, discipline, general efficiency, and moral tone of the company.

The lieutenants assist the captain in the maintenance of discipline, and in the instruction.

The company is divided into two equal parts, which are designated as the First and Second Platoon, counting from the right; and each platoon is, in like manner, divided into two Sections.

The company is formed into two ranks in the following manner: the corporals on the right and left of platoons, according to height; the tallest corporal and the tallest man from the front file on the right, the next two tallest men from the second file, and so on to the last file, which is composed of the shortest corporal and the shortest man.

The odd and even files, Numbered as One, Two, in the company, from right to left, form groups of four men, who, when they act as light troops, are designated Comrades in Battle.

The officers and non-commissioned officers of the company are posted in the following manner:

  • The Captain on the right of the company, touching with the left elbow.
  • The First Sergeant, in the rear rank, touching with the left elbow, and covering the captain. In the manoeuvres he is designated Covering Sergeant, or Right Guide of the company.
  • The remaining officers and sergeants are posted as file-closers, in the rank of File Closers, two paces behind the rear rank.
  • The First Lieutenant, opposite the centre of the fourth section.
  • The Second Lieutenant, opposite the centre of the first platoon.
  • The Third Lieutenant, opposite the centre of the second platoon.
  • The Second Sergeant, opposite the second file from the left of the company. In the manoeuvres he is called the Left Guide of the company.
  • The Third Sergeant, opposite the second file from the right of the second platoon.
  • The Fourth Sergeant, opposite the second file from the left of the first platoon.
  • The Fifth Sergeant, opposite the second file from the right of the first platoon.
  • The Corporals are posted in the front rank, on the right and left of platoons.

1. TO FORM COMPANY

FALL IN – COMPANY

The corporals and privates fall in at ORDER ARMS in one rank facing right, dressing on the right hand corporal in order of height, the tallest on the right.

FRONT

The second sergeant places himself on the left of the company as its Left Guide.

IN TWO RANKS, FORM COMPANY – LEFT FACE – MARCH

On LEFT FACE, the whole company faces to the left, except the left guide and the man on the left, who stand fast.

On MARCH, the whole of the men who have faced to the left, step off together; the second man, counting from the left, places himself in the rear rank, behind the man next to the left guide, and faces to the front; the two following men will, in like manner, on closing up, form the next file, the third man in the front, and the fourth in the rear rank behind him, and all the other men come successively to form files, two deep, to the right of those already formed.

When this manoeuvre is complete, the officers take their posts.

When the company is in good discipline, the files may be formed in two ranks at once, each man having his proper number in the company.

FRONT. LEFT DRESS. FRONT.

On DRESS the designated guide (left/right) stands fast. Others turn eyes to him and dress up. In each rank elbows should touch. There should be a thirteen-inch gap between ranks (a forearm’s length). Eyes stay turned until FRONT.

IN EACH RANK – COUNT TWOS

The right file corporal and his rear file count ONE, the next file TWO and the third ONE, etc. The Company is then divided into Platoons and Sections, taking care that the first platoon is always composed of an even number of files. If necessary file corporals take Post and the Company counts off again.

2. TO OPEN RANKS

TO THE REAR, OPEN ORDER – MARCH

On REAR the left and right guides take four steps to the rear and dress. On MARCH, the rear rank takes four steps to the rear and dress on the left. The MANUAL OF ARMS and INSPECTION ARMS are usually performed in this formation.

3. TO CLOSE RANKS

CLOSE ORDER – MARCH

On MARCH the rear rank march forward and dress on their file leader.

4. TO ADVANCE IN LINE OF BATTLE

FORWARD MARCH

On MARCH, the Company sets off on the LEFT foot (this rule is general). The cadence may be called by officers or NCO’s thus: TO THE STEP as the LEFT foot should touch the ground. Alternatively: ONE – TWO – ONE, again as the LEFT foot touches the ground.

LEFT/RIGHT OBLIQUE – MARCH

On MARCH each man turns 45 degrees left/right and continues to march in this direction, maintaining his dressing until the order FORWARD – MARCH is given. The men will then FRONT and continue forwards, dressing left/right as ordered.

GUIDE LEFT/RIGHT – MARCH

On MARCH, the left and right guides march in the direction indicated. The men follow, maintaining their dressing. This order is given to clear small obstacles, make minor adjustments to the line, etc.

5. TO MARCH IN RETREAT

RIGHT ABOUT – MARCH

On MARCH, the Company performs an ABOUT – FACE and continues to march in the opposite direction.

6. TO MARCH BACKWARDS

BACKWARDS – MARCH

On MARCH, the Company steps off backwards, being careful to maintain its dressing. For long marches, or over rough ground, the rear rank may be ordered to grasp the belts of the front rank. In desperate circumstances, the front rank may be ordered to load and fire on the move.

7. TO WHEEL FROM THE HALT

RIGHT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide pivots on the spot, the Company turns heads to the LEFT and touch elbows to the RIGHT. The left guide marches at the normal step, the rest of the Company adjusting the step to suit. The wheel continues until either of the following:

  • HALT: the Company halts and dresses on the pivot guide;
  • FORWARD – MARCH: the Company marches forward dressing on the right guide.

LEFT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the left guide pivots on the spot, the Company turns heads to the RIGHT and touch elbows to the LEFT. The right guide sets the normal pace. At the HALT, the Company dresses on the pivot guide, on the MARCH on the left guide.

Wheels may also be made on the Centre File or any designated file. On MARCH, the relevant men will march BACKWARDS, conforming to the principle of the wheel.

8. TO WHEEL ON THE MARCH

RIGHT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide begins the wheel taking nine-inch steps. The men turn their heads AND touch elbows to the LEFT. The left guide marches at the normal step, the rest of the Company adjusting the step to suit. The wheel continues until either of the following:

  • HALT: the Company halts and dresses right;
  • FORWARD – MARCH: the Company marches forward dressing right.

LEFT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the left guide takes nine-inch steps. The men turn their heads AND touch elbows to the RIGHT and the right guide marches at the normal step. At the HALT and the MARCH, the Company dresses left.

9. TO MARCH BY THE FLANK

RIGHT – FACE – FORWARD – MARCH

On FACE, Number Ones face right and stand fast, Number Twos face right and step forward and to the right of the Number Ones, thus forming files of FOUR men elbow to elbow. The intervals this leaves between ranks must be maintained when the Company is on the MARCH and when it comes to the HALT.

FRONT

On FRONT, Number Ones face left and stand fast; Number Twos face left and step forward and to the left of the Number Ones, thus regaining their place in the LINE OF BATTLE.

COLUMN OF FOURS FROM THE RIGHT FACE
 
Cap S1  
  C1 2 1 2   S5
1 2 1 2  
1 2 1 2 L2
1 2 1 2  
1 C2 1 2 S4
C3 2 1 2 S3
1 2 1 2  
1 2 1 2 L3
1 2 1 2 L1
1 C4 1 2 S2

LEFT – FACE – FORWARD – MARCH

On FACE, Number Twos face left and stand fast; Number Ones face left and step forward and to the right of the Number Ones. Files and intervals are maintained as in the right face.

FRONT

On FRONT, Number Twos face right and stand fast; Number Ones face right and step forward and to the right of the Number Twos.

10. TO MARCH BY THE FLANK (WITHOUT DOUBLING)

IN TWO RANKS – RIGHT/LEFT FACE

On FACE, both ranks face on the spot.

FRONT

On FRONT, both ranks FRONT on the spot.

11. TO CHANGE DIRECTION BY FILE

BY FILE RIGHT/LEFT – MARCH

On RIGHT/LEFT, the guide doubles to the designated turning point. On MARCH, the first file wheel ninety degrees to the right/left of the guide as they pass him and march on. All following files march up to the same point and wheel likewise.

COUNTER MARCH – BY FILE RIGHT/LEFT – MARCH

Proceed as above, wheeling 1800 on the guide.

12. TO FORM LINE OF BATTLE TO THE RIGHT

ON THE RIGHT – BY FILE – INTO LINE – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide doubles six paces to the right. The rear rank files mark time as the front rank files march on. The first front rank file wheel right and the Number One crosses in front of the Number Two before dressing on the right guide. Successive front rank files repeat this as they reach their place in the line. When four front rank men are in the line the rear rank will march on and wheel into the line in the same way, covering off with the front rank.

ON THE LEFT – BY FILE – INTO LINE – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide doubles to the left, and the men wheel to the left.

13. TO FORM LINE OF BATTLE TO THE FRONT

BY COMPANY INTO LINE – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide continues to march forward (or to guide left/right if ordered). The men double left oblique until they reach their position in the line of battle, when they FRONT and take up the pace from the right guide, shouldering arms and dressing up on the march.

14. TO MARCH BY THE FLANK WHILE ON THE MARCH IN LINE OF BATTLE

BY THE RIGHT/LEFT FLANK – MARCH

On MARCH, the men execute a Company left/right face and continue to march on in columns of fours.

15. TO REFORM LINE OF BATTLE WHILE MARCHING BY THE FLANK

BY THE RIGHT/LEFT FLANK – MARCH

On MARCH, the men execute a Company right/left ‘front’ and march on in line of battle.

16. TO FORM TWO RANKS FROM FOUR RANKS WHILE MARCHING BY THE RIGHT FLANK

IN TWO RANKS – UNDOUBLE FILES – MARCH

On MARCH, Number Ones march on ahead, Number Twos shorten step and march left oblique to place themselves behind Number Ones. The rear rank then march left oblique to close up with the front rank. When marching by the left flank, the Number Twos march on and the Number Ones march right oblique.

17. TO FORM ONE RANK FROM TWO RANKS WHILE MARCHING BY THE RIGHT FLANK

SINGLE FILE – MARCH

On MARCH, the Front Rank march on ahead, the Rear Rank shorten step and march left oblique to place themselves behind the front rank men. When marching by the left flank the Rear Rank march on and the Front Rank march right oblique.

18. TO REFORM COLUMN OF FOURS FROM TWO RANKS WHILE MARCHING BY THE RIGHT FLANK

IN FOURS DOUBLE FILES – MARCH

On MARCH, Number Ones march on ahead, the Rear Rank Ones oblique one pace to the right. Number Twos then step up to the right of the Number Ones to reform the column of fours. When marching by the left flank, Number Twos march on and the Number Ones step up to the left of the Number Twos.

19. TO FORM TWO RANKS WHILE MARCHING BY THE RIGHT FLANK IN SINGLE FILE

IN TWO RANKS DOUBLE FILES – MARCH

On MARCH, the Front Rank Ones and Twos march on ahead, the Rear Rank Ones and Twos lengthen step and march right oblique to form two ranks. When marching by the left flank, the Rear Rank numbers march on ahead and the Front Rank march left oblique.

PLATOON DRILL

1. TO FORM COLUMN OF PLATOONS FROM A LINE OF BATTLE AT THE HALT

COMPANY – BY PLATOON – RIGHT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the right guide and the Second Platoon Corporal face right in place and each Platoon wheels on them. Each Platoon Commander then orders PLATOON – HALT as his Platoon completes a 900 followed by RIGHT DRESS – FRONT.

COMPANY – BY PLATOON – LEFT WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, the left guide and the First Platoon Centre Corporal face left in place and each Platoon wheels on them. Platoons dress right.

2. TO FORM COLUMN OF PLATOONS FROM A LINE OF BATTLE ON THE MARCH

Proceed as in (1) substituting FORWARD – MARCH for HALT. Platoons will dress on the march. Guides do not face but wheel normally.

N.B. in marching by column of platoons care must be taken to keep in line and to keep the correct distance between platoons.

3. TO FORM LINE OF BATTLE TO THE LEFT

PLATOON – LEFT INTO LINE, WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, each Platoon left guide faces left in place and each Platoon wheels on them

PLATOON – HALT – RIGHT DRESS – FRONT

On HALT, given as the two platoons complete a 90wheel, the left and right flank of each Platoon should be in contact. On DRESS, Company dress.

PLATOON – RIGHT INTO LINE, WHEEL – MARCH

On MARCH, each Platoon right guide faces right for the wheel. The formed line of battle dresses left.

4. TO FORM LINE OF BATTLE TO THE LEFT WHILE ON THE MARCH

Proceed as in (3) substituting FORWARD – MARCH for HALT. The Company will dress on the march. Guides do not face but wheel on the spot.

SKIRMISH DRILL

All movements are carried out at Quick or Double Quick Time, except rallies which are at the Run. Skirmishers carry their piece at will when deployed. They may load on the move, prone or kneeling, taking advantage of any cover and may change their position to load.

The basic unit is the four man group of Comrades in Battles, comprising a Front Rank Number One and Two and a Rear Rank Number One and Two. Each pair of Ones and Twos should ensure that one of them is loaded at all times. When deployed in Skirmish Order, they should maintain a distance of five paces between each man, although this distance may be varied to take advantage of cover. However, each man should be able to see his three comrades.

1. TO DEPLOY FORWARD

FIRST PLATOON – AS SKIRMISHERS – ON THE LEFT FILE – TAKE INTERVAL – MARCH

On MARCH, the left Four continue forwards, all others march diagonally to the right until they are twenty paces from their neighbour when they too advance. On HALT, each Four deploys as follows: the Front Rank Number Two stands fast while the Rear Rank Number Two moves diagonally to the left to stand five paces from him. The Front Rank Number One moves ten paces to his right while the Rear Rank Number One moves diagonally to the right to stand between his partner and the Front Rank Number Two. All four comrades form one rank.

TO DEPLOY BY THE FLANK

FIRST PLATOON – AS SKIRMISHERS – BY THE RIGHT FLANK – TAKE INTERVALS – MARCH

On MARCH, the Platoon faces right. The left hand Four stands fast and deploys as soon as it has space. The next Four halt twenty paces from the Four on its left and deploys, and so on. This deployment may be made on the Left Flank or BY THE RIGHT AND LEFT FLANK. In this case, a designated Four stands fast and the others face left or right as appropriate.

TO EXTEND INTERVALS

BY THE LEFT FLANK – ‘xx’ PACES – EXTEND INTERVALS – MARCH

On MARCH, the right hand Four stands fast, all others face left and extend their intervals by the required (‘xx’) number of paces, facing the enemy as soon as they are in position.

N.B. All extensions of intervals are between groups of four. Each Four maintains its five pace intervals between individuals. The extensions may be made BY THE RIGHT FLANK or BY THE RIGHT AND LEFT FLANK. In this case a designated Four stands fast and the others face left or right as appropriate.

TO EXTEND INTERVALS ON THE MARCH

ON THE LEFT GROUP – ‘xx’ PACES – EXTEND INTERVALS MARCH

On MARCH, the left Four continues to advance, the others move diagonally to the right until the extension is made. Extensions made be made on the Right Group or on the Centre.

TO CLOSE INTERVALS AT THE HALT

BY THE LEFT FLANK – ‘xx’ PACES – CLOSE INTERVALS – MARCH

On MARCH, the left Four stands fast, others face to the left and close up to the prescribed distance, each group facing the enemy as it reaches its position. Intervals may be closed BY THE RIGHT FLANK or BY THE RIGHT AND LEFT FLANK.

TO CLOSE INTERVALS ON THE MARCH

ON THE LEFT GROUP – ‘xx’ PACES – CLOSE INTERVALS MARCH

On MARCH, the left group advances, the others move up diagonally to the left until the intervals are reduced to the correct distance.

TO RELIEVE A PLATOON DEPLOYED AS SKIRMISHERS

The relieving Platoon advances and deploys twenty paces to the rear, then advances briskly through the Platoon in front, halting a few paces beyond it. The relieved Platoon retires to the rear or assembles on the reserve.

2. TO MARCH IN ADVANCE

FORWARD – MARCH

Orders are as normal.

TO MARCH IN RETREAT

IN RETREAT – MARCH

On MARCH, all About Face and retire. On HALT, all face the enemy.

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK

BY THE RIGHT FLANK – MARCH

On MARCH, all face right and move off, keeping their intervals. On HALT, all face the enemy. Moves may also be made BY THE LEFT FLANK.

3. THE FIRINGS

TO FIRE AT THE HALT – COMMENCE FIRING

On FIRING, the Front Rank Numbers fire and reload. The Rear Rank Numbers come to the Ready and fire when their partners have reloaded.

TO FIRE MARCHING IN ADVANCE – COMMENCE FIRING

On FIRING, the Front Rank Numbers halt, fire and reload before moving forward. Rear Rank Numbers advance 10-12 paces, halt and fire when their partner has reloaded. In this way, a forward movement is kept up.

TO FIRE MARCHING IN RETREAT – COMMENCE FIRING

On FIRING, the Front Rank Numbers face about, fire and reload while moving to the rear. Rear Rank Numbers continue to march for 10-12 paces, face about, come to the Ready and fires when his partner has passed him. In this way, the retreat is continued.

TO FIRE BY THE FLANK – BY THE RIGHT FLANK – COMMENCE FIRING

On FIRING, Front Rank Numbers face the enemy, take one step forward, halt and fire before reloading on the march. Rear Rank Numbers continue forward until their partner is loaded before firing in their turn. This is continued until the HALT, when all ranks ensure they are in their correct positions. In FIRING BY THE LEFT FLANK, the Rear Rank Numbers fire first.

IF FIRING AT THE HALT, or BY THE FLANK

At the command FORWARD – MARCH, the men with loaded weapons move to the front.

At the command IN RETREAT – MARCH, the men with loaded weapons remain facing the enemy and fire before retiring.

At the command CEASE – FIRE, all men reload.

If the skirmish line is advancing, at the HALT the line reforms on the skirmishers in front; if the line is in retreat, it reforms upon the skirmishers in the rear.

4. RALLIES

RALLY BY FOURS

Each Four closes on the Front Rank Number Two who stands fast. The Rear Rank Number One stands back to back with him while the Rear Rank Number Two and the Front Rank Number One also stand back to back to form a compact group. All Charge Bayonet and may fire in their pairs as opportunity arises.

RALLY BY SECTIONS OR PLATOON

Each group of four rallies on a designated group forming a circle.

RALLY ON THE RESERVE

Each group of four rallies on the Reserve.

5. ASSEMBLIES

ASSEMBLE ON THE RESERVE

Each Four reassembles in Close Order, Front Rank men behind the Rear Rank men, and marches back to the Reserve where they take their correct places.

ASSEMBLE ON THE CENTRE

Each Four marches individually, diagonally left or right as appropriate, until the Section or Platoon is assembled on the centre. Once in line they will halt at the Right Shoulder Shift. This Assembly may be made on the Right or Left File. It may also be made at the Halt on the line already occupied. Skirmishers face left or right as appropriate, and march into position halting at Support Arms.

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